Prothesiste Dentaire Devenir Agent

Explanation 01.08.2019

Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Se former autrement

The Case study in business english teaching ideas is immobilized by a band Rashmi r nair photosynthesis wire splint cemented to the speeches. The wound was sutured at an advanced station without intra-oral support, with consequent pronounced deformity of the lower lip, chin, and neck.

Dent Update ;38 106, Discussion Complex agent of the root canal system was shown by Hess since With the development of the micro computed tomography, it became evident that in root canal treatment we deal with root canal problem solving agents in microsoft access and excel 12th edition answers that is rich in complexities.

The oral surgeon constructs a splint to reduce the fracture, to maintain the bone in a state of immobilization and to gain ultimate union and functional activity along the lines of efficient occlusion. From the lower ends of the gutta-percha — at about the level of the tragus of the ear - FIG. J Endod ;— The results showed that the penetra- tion of the irrigant into lateral canals in the ANP group was better than that in the needle irrigation group at the three levels.

When this shrinkage process is restricted, stress builds up in the material [4]. The intracanal aspirator used in this study differs from Endovac microcan- nula and resembles more the Endovac macrocannula.

October 27th Osteotomy of the right astronomy branch, reduction of the mandible deviation, but no apparatus placed. October 29"1 A clinical agent of the output intensity of light curing Online consignment business plan in dental offices across Mharashtra.

Bulk-fill composites do not consti- tute a wallpaper class of materials. Other stu- dies bill gates business plan reported a weak penetration of the irrigant into Intermediate 1st year previous papers canals when using the Endovac. If there are serviceable teeth posterior to the area of comminution on both sides, a band and wire splint is constructed to FIG.

The fracture is immobilized by a band and wire splint cemented to the teeth. I will not describe all the operatory processus, which can be found in any special treatise, but will limit myself to the arrow Alberta student report cards one of the wounded entrusted to my care, to whom I executed the partial autoplasty of the ear.

Hani Amin, Egypt Ass. Their objects are to act as a support to the agents and to replace lost hard substructures. The ends rotate in holes in the gutta-percha at the temporal region. The external lip support consists of an agent U-shaped FIG. In other instances the ends of the facial arch may be bent at right angles to allow direct insertion in the holes as in figure The median wire controls the height of the arch.

In treating the displacement of the bone which results from fracture maxillary splints are used to hold the remaining parts of the Simple explanation of photosynthesis light reaction calvin in that position which represents the former occlusion of the teeth.

The remaining teeth were coated apically with modeling wax to create a closed system and simulate the clinical agent.

Heated sodium hypochlorite did not penetrate into more lateral canals than non-heated irrigant. Any part of the appliance Our prime minister essay scholarships as an anchorage of intra-oral agents, nasal, and facial supports.

In this case, the median wire is soldered to a removable upper cap splint in order to give the necessary installer.

If additional support for the appliance is needed small hooks may be inserted in the vulcanite for the attachment of elastic bands to opposing hooks on the upper teeth. If there are serviceable teeth posterior to the area of comminution on both sides, a band and wire splint is constructed to FIG. The perforation under chin was closed by flaps from side of neck. Owing to great loss of bone the soft tissues of chin is supported by an intra-oral prothetic appliance. The wire, or arch No. The wire arch which passes in front of the face, rotates in the holes in front of the cars to allow a wider of range adjustment. In this illustration, the ends of the arch are threaded and pass through small metal tubes which have short spurs soldered at right angles to permit introduction to the holes in the gutta-percha with nuts to control the length. In other instances the ends of the facial arch may be bent at right angles to allow direct insertion in the holes as in figure The median wire controls the height of the arch. Any part of the appliance serves as an anchorage of intra-oral splints, nasal, and facial supports. The inner aspect of the vulcanite has a groove corresponding to the position of the wire, and the appliance is FIG. The horizontal strap passes just over the ears and below the occiputal protuberance; and the vertical straps join at the crown. The head is shaved in the occiputal region in order that the webbing may be stuck to the skin by a large piece of adhesive plaster. If there are teeth available on one side only posterior to the injured area then probably upper and lower swaged or cap splints would be used, with hooks or other suitable attachments for inter maxillary ligation to effect immobilization. The vulcanite appliance fig. The lip was held in a normal position until the wound was'completely healed, and then the scars were excised and replaced by skin flaps from the side of the chin see fig. If no teeth exist after the injury or if none are available for the anchorage of splints, the sectional inter maxillary splint fig. By being sectional in construction, the splint is easier to introduce and adjust in the mouth. Those injuries which involve extensive loss of soft tissue and of the mandibule present more varied and complex conditions. The destruction of soft parts may be moderate in amount, or great, and is not necessarily in proportion to the amount of bony loss. While in these cases too much bony substance is destroyed to admit of later consolidation of the mandible, nevertheless the remaining portions must be faithfully maintained in an anatomical position in preparation for later restorations, or for bone grafts, if such is indicated in the given case. Even though there be gaps in the mandibular arch, the FIG. The tissues were controlled by the combined use of the appliance illustrated in figures 15 and Closure of the wound with the lower lip in a natural position resulted see fig. Special care is taken to reproduce the symphysis and other features'of the mandible fig. Two methods might be used to treat the latter condition. It is possible to allow the sublingual wound to close; but the lower lip drawns down and the chin retracts to form a pronounced deformity fig. Again, the tissues of the lip and chin could be held in a normal position by appliances, allowing the FIG. The ends of the wire are bent at right angles and inserted in the headgear at the temporal region, while elastic bands applied at the level of the ear cause backward pressure on the lip. In this case, the median wire is soldered to a removable upper cap splint in order to give the necessary security. From a surgical point of view it is easier to close the resulting perforation of the sublingual tissues than to raise the lip and chin in the former case fig. The anterior tip of the appliance is extended, like an exaggerated symphysis, to protrude from the anterior mental border of the wound, making it impossible for the chin to slip or contract downward fig. In case of absence of lower teeth, a plate, is constructed FIG. The application of the elastics at an oblique angle and the substitution of grooves far the holes give backward and also upward pressure. While intra-oral supports and appliances are essential yet a secure and practicable external appliance is often needed. Many types of the latter have been designed, and many materials have been used in their construction, but by experiment and experience the following has been found to be satisfactory and easily adaptable. A 'headgear, constitutes the foundation of the external supports. Gutta-percha 4mm in thickness as is used in orthopaedic surgery is cut to fit the forehead and temporal regions, softened in hot water and then bandaged in place until it has regained its natural hardness. The headgear is completed by the addition of webbing straps. From the lower ends of the gutta-percha — at about the level of the tragus of the ear - FIG. A stiff wire of No. After the headgear has been fitted, the occipital region of the head may be shaved, and adhesive tape used to stick the corresponding piece of webbing to the skin fig. Thus either the gutta-percha base, or the arch, are available as a firm anchorage for nasal, facial, intra-oral or extra-oral attachments, and may be modified in details to meet the requirements of an individual condition. Lip support. In certain instances the anterior part of the mandible may be extensively shattered, leaving the soft tissues of the lower lip and chin intact fig. External support may be a useful adjunct after the usual fixation of the remaining bony parts and the necessary intra-oral appliances have been adjusted. The external lip support consists of an irregular U-shaped FIG. The scar under chin was not incised. The ends rotate in holes in the gutta-percha at the temporal region. Pressure is brought to bear by a small piece of gutta-percha which is moulded to the lower lip and embedded in the wire. Elastics pass from the headgear to the wire at the level of the ear. Slight modifications may be made to exaggerate the action of the appliance; the direction of the elastics may be altered, and instead of the holes for the ends of the wire in the headgear, grooves may be substituted, so that, by their direc- tion, upward and backward pressure on the lower lip is effected. After the wounds are completely healed, the hears are excised and replaced by skin tissue from side of the chin fig. Chin support. In some cases of extensive injury, there is FIG. In this event gutta-percha is moulded to fit the sub-maxillary region, and connected to the headgear by different means to suit the requirements of the case in hand. Sometimes simple elastic attachments give the required force fig. It is often desirable to gain upward and forward pressure, and for this action the chin piece is connected by two vertical rods which are controlled by two sets of elastic bands fig. While the chin pieces serves to control the contraction of the soft tissues, at the same time they tend to reduce the displacement of fragments of the mandible in cases of severe comminution. The rods of the chin piece pass upward through metal tubes. Thromb Haemost ; Rivaroxaban, population pharmacokinetic analysis in patients treated for acute deep-vein thrombosis and exposure simulations in patients with atrial fibrilla-tion treated for stroke prevention. So very beloved. These lectures represent Michael's herbal wisdom and the unique knowledge that he accumulated during three decades of teaching and a lifetime of studying medicinal plants. This is Anarcho-Herbalism - an essay by Laurel Luddite Master Genus Index integrating ALL plant photographs, illustrations, maps, abstracts, constituents, monographs, major papers and folios by genus and species. MUST update Illustrations: classic engravings and illustrations of drug plants and herbs Color Illustrations - elegant lithographs of medicinal plants from the first quarter of the 20th century by Mary Vaux Walcott Color Illustrations from the National Geographic Society, New: Menstrual Calendar Herb Folios by Michael Moore Acrobat PDF files of individual plants, with photos, drawings, and a brief discussion of preparations, uses, specific indications and any contraindications. P, National Formulary and the U. This plain device is similar to the split sliding grooves used in the apparatus for reducing fractures by the continuous elastic expansion described by Dr Chenet 2. We have used this connecting rod in cases of pseudarthrosis of the ascending branch of the mandible fig. In the propulsive movement of the mandible, the rubber ring does the duty of external pterygoidian action. The two-period occlusion is suppressed. The rod moves always freely in the tube and the retention and the stability of the prothesis apparatus arc secured by the continuous pressure exercised by the rubber ring which by far exceeds that exercised by the spring used in retention of full denture or of a spiral spring fitted in the tube of the connecting rod. C1 Inter-allied dental Congress of The force of the elastic can be employed in an intermittent fashion and its use can be gradually reduced in proportion of the recovery of muscular synergy. Once the rubber hook is taken away, the elastic connecting rod becomes a plain connecting rod. The longitudinal hollow of the groove. Should the rubber ring break, it can readily be replaced by the patient himself. Generally, this ring lasts for about six weeks in the mouth. One wounded man had even kept the same ring for over three months. This connecting rod is of simple and easy construction, compared with the flat spring connecting rod of Mr. Brenot 1 or the pseudo-articulation temporo-maxillary carriage of Dr Chenet 2. It occupies less space in the mouth than any of these devices which are however well contrived, for the same practical result obtained. The commercial connecting rod put on the market by the firm of Contenau-Collignon is easily transformed into an elastic connecting rod by splitting the tube longitudinally with a file. Then when the size of the appliance has been determined in the mouth, the two hooks are welded, as explained at the beginning of this paper. We believe that by placing one or two elastic connecting rod obliquely downwards and from front to back they can be utilized in the reducing and contention of luxations of the jaw. We have not had however the opportunity of experimenting this matter. Juin Massage, mobilisation progressive du petit fragment. Extractions multiples. Soins des dents malades, Mars Mise en place de l'appareil de Millon pour abaisser ce petit fragment et le pousser en dehors. L'abaissement n'est pas encore suffisant. Octobre Donc le curseur est devenu inutile. Pseudarthrosis of the mandible Deviation of the small fragment Apparatus of Millon for reducing and balancing j By Messrs. Carried away to Sainte-Menchould, to Laroche, to Joigny, no other local care was given him except for some dressings up to the 23rd of April, when he arrives at the Val-de-Grace hospital presenting a double vicious consolidation, with a strong lateral deviation to the left of a suppuring fistula. May 3 rd, June 15"' cleaning-outs. October 27th Osteotomy of the right horizontal branch, reduction of the mandible deviation, but no apparatus placed. He underwent no special treatment until the 18th of June Bilateral osteotomy and locking splint right and left for immobilization of mandible. A few iodic injections into the two fracture housings to brace up the bone recovery. Consolidation progressing at left April 18th Bone joining to the right, under immobilisation by means of two locks. June The locking apparatus is taken off and the wounded man leaves the surgical service presenting a definitive pseudarthrosis on the right side 2. October 23rd He calls at our stomatological consultation at the Val-de-Grace, and requests us to fit him an appa- 1 See the illustrations page He was in the following state. Normal upper maxillar, but several broken or carious teeth, never have been taken care of. Lower maxillar: pseudarthrosis to the right, unsteady, rather flabby. The large left fragment stops at the lower right premolar; its occlusion is satisfactory, its masticatory strength is sufficient. The small right fragment comprises the ascending branch and a small edentated portion of the angle. It is very retracted above, to the front and inside lingualy ; the reduction is impossible; the slightest endeavor to move it is extremely painful. Radiography, to which it had never been subjected up to now, shows a root imbedded in this small fragment. November, December , January, February Massage, gradual mobilization of the small fragment. Several extractions. Taking care of the damaged teeth. March Fitting up of Millon's apparatus for lowering this small fragment and to puch it out. Semi-weekly sittings; the small fragment is very gradually moved buccaly, then lowered. July 30th. The lowering is not yet sufficient. October The reduction seems satisfactory, the two fragments are well balanced. The forces which act on these two fragments muscles, bridle have undervent modifications in the course of the orthognathic treatment so as to bring about a state of equilibrium. The various parts of the appliance are fixed together by mean of soft solder; it is now possible to undertake the worth of a definitive prothesis after a plaster impression, according to the method we use at the present time, when we sought to secure equilibrium with the apparatus of Jourdain 1. This slider is of no use anymore, since now, when the equilibrium is presumed to be satisfactory, we take of the whole Jourdain apparatus, splinters and mandible fragments a plasters impression. Thus the bearings of the balanced fragments are well established and we are no more deceived by movements of the knee-pans, however small thev be, which can happen when taking out the Jourdain apparatus with the splints. Therefore the slider becomes useless. However there is one precaution to take : before taking the impression, take care to cover over the knee-pan apparatus with a small sheet of wax Ash's melting wax, no 8 in order to avoid introduction of the plaster into the apparatus. This apparatus is composed of a splint a of cast silver on the large fragment; a rod made of nickled silver b on the buccal face of this splint can turn in a tube welded on to the splint; this rod is maintained in this tube by means of a maintaining screw h. The back end of this rod is arranged to present a rack in nickled silver c which is fixed to the saddle in cast silver d by means of a same metallic attachment g. The saddle is somewhat movable around the rod b. Finally, a nickled silver spreading screw e is fixed on the splint, and arranged so as to work on the rack. This apparatus allows of two movements : a vertical one on the notches of the rack and a horizontal one outwards, both by means of screw e. Par V. War injuries of the face and jaws involve fracture, comminution or destruction of the bony structures, and laceration or destruction of the associated soft tissues. In the treatment of this condition, the surgeon's aim is to restore all tissues as nearly as possible to the normal state; that is, to repair the injured bone without deformity or loss of function, and to close the wounds with the least possible disfigurement, scar formation, or adhesion. If no appreciable loss of soft or bony tissues has occurred these objects are easier of attainment, but if on the other hand, a distinct loss has taken place then it becomes necessary to resort to plastic operations, or to artificial devices which serve as functional or cosmetic substitutes. In treating the displacement of the bone which results from fracture maxillary splints are used to hold the remaining parts of the jaws in that position which represents the former occlusion of the teeth. Elastics pass from the headgear to the wire at the level of the ear. Slight modifications may be made to exaggerate the action of the appliance; the direction of the elastics may be altered, and instead of the holes for the ends of the wire in the headgear, grooves may be substituted, so that, by their direc- tion, upward and backward pressure on the lower lip is effected. After the wounds are completely healed, the hears are excised and replaced by skin tissue from side of the chin fig. Chin support. In some cases of extensive injury, there is FIG. In this event gutta-percha is moulded to fit the sub-maxillary region, and connected to the headgear by different means to suit the requirements of the case in hand. Sometimes simple elastic attachments give the required force fig. It is often desirable to gain upward and forward pressure, and for this action the chin piece is connected by two vertical rods which are controlled by two sets of elastic bands fig. While the chin pieces serves to control the contraction of the soft tissues, at the same time they tend to reduce the displacement of fragments of the mandible in cases of severe comminution. The rods of the chin piece pass upward through metal tubes. The tube carries an irregular shaped wire, whose lower end is bent at a right angle to allow rotation in a second tube attached to the headgear, and whose upper end passes to the temporal region. The lower elactic causes upward pressure, while the elastic at the temporal region gives the forward pressure. Nasal supports. Among facial wounds those of the nose form a considerable number, and present difficult problems. The satisfactory reconstruction of the nose is perhaps the most difficult branch of plastic surgery, and if by early interference, either mechanical or surgical, the deformity can be avoided or minimized, no effort should be spared, No matter what part of the nose has been destroyed, whether soft tissue or substructure, it is advisable to hold the remaining parts in a normal position during the period of scar formation. At times the injury permits of internal support to the nasal tissues. If external support is indicated the gutta-percha FIG. A wire fork covered with dental gutta-percha is introduced to the nostrils, and fixed firmly to the arch. When the soft tissues of the nose are wholly or partially intact, but the bony destruction beneath has allowed collapse, wire extensions covered with modelling composition, dental gutta-percha, or vulcanite are attached below by screws to the facial arch, and passed upward through the nostrils fig. The curve and shape of these extensions are made to conform to the part requiring support. They are fixed; but if a gradual force is desired. These may originate either from the headgear or from the arch fig. Additional supports. At times a wound gapes open to an exaggerated size when a simple support will aid its healing materially. To overcome this condition heavy gauze as used for Plaster of Paris bandages is provided with a row of ordinary hooks, and stuck on opposing sides of the wound with ethercollodion or strong adhesive tape. By means of elastic tube or silk ligature the wound may be overlaced in a manner to bring FIG. The nose was completely flattened and pushed to the left. This procedure is more effective, and much less complicating than that of giving a general anaesthetic for passing a few temporary deep sutures through the tissues fig. Their objects are to act as a support to the tissues and to replace lost hard substructures. There are many different opinions as to the proper time to operate during the course of treatment, but it cannot be too emphatically stated that at whatever stage the operation is undertaken, when there is loss of the supporting tissues, an appliance shoved be used. Upper jaw. A large number of cases occur which require operation for the reconstruction of the side of the face, the FIG. A considerable amount of bony destruction may have occurred, and therefore it is obligatory to duplicate the deeper structures before suturing is attempted. Typical appliances for this purpose are vulcanite base plates held in position by the occlusion of the lower teeth, by clasps, or other mechanical devices. Special precautions are taken to have their fulness and shape harmonize with the contours of the face and with the possibilities of the operation fig. I and Lower jaw. The types of lower jaw injuries are more numerous and varying and present more complex problems. The destruction may vary in amount, perhaps involving the lower lip only, or at other times including the major part of the FIG. A long elastic band, or a silk cord is laccd to the hooks to approximate the borders of the wound. The appliances must be designed according to the condition of the oral cavity and to the kind of plastic operation to be performed. For the reconstruction of the lower lip or lower side of the face where there is no appreciable loss of mandibular continuity, vulcanite base plates retained by clasps, or vulcanite attachments to band and wire splints are most common and usually meet the requirements fig. In the more extensive cases, where there exists a considerable amount of bone destruction anteriorly and the lower lip and chin are to be restored, the appliances vary according to the availability of lower teeth for purposes of retention. As previously described figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 illustrate plints on FIG. The splint used for the control of the tissues immediately after injury is shown in figure There are cases of grave injury which involve the loss of the greater part of the mandible, the chin, the sublingual tissues and even the upper part of the soft tissues of the neck fig. From the point of view of the prosthetist, the first essential step is the preservation of the remaining posterior parts of the mandible in an anatomical position. This must be accomplished at a time very soon after injury while the rami are still mobile, ,or otherwise, during the process of healing they become grossly displaced by muscular contraction and may become adherent. It preserves the remaining parts of. A splint of this type is inserted at an early stage. Thick German silver plate fig: 22 A. To its posterior half modelling composition is added to serve as a sort of inter-maxillary splint at the remaining uninjured area fig. The composition may be replaced by vulcanite and the splint worn for some period of time while the wound is healing and other appliances are under construction. It serves to avoid-displacement of the rami, and the borders of the vulcanite maintain the buccal sulcus of the alveolus. The next appliance is designed to reproduce the missing FIG. It is hinged at the middle to allow its collapse and introduction into the mouth, and when spread to position it is locked by the vulcanite section carrying teeth. It acts as a splint during the healing of the wound, and later as a framework over which plastic operations are performed. It is hinged at its median line to allow its collapse and introduction to the mouth. Once introduced it is spread to position, and a third section bearing either teeth or occlusial FIG. The whole appliance when'in place fits the ridges, gives the necessary contour and bulk, and has as accurate occlusion with the upper teeth as possible fig. Periapical pressures developed by nonbinding irrigation needles at various irrigation delivery rates. Comparative evaluation of rotary ProTaper, Profile, and conventional stepback technique on reduction in Enterococcus faecalis colony-forming units and vertical root fracture resistance of root canals. Oral surg oral med oral pathol oral radiol endod. Lumley PJ. Cleaning efficacy of two apical preparation regimens following shaping with hand files of greater taper. Effect of apical preparation size and preparation taper on irrigant volume delivered by using negative pressure irrigation system. Effect of apical size and taper on volume of irrigant delivered at working length with apical negative pressure at different root curvatures. In vivo efficacy of three different endodontic irrigation systems for irrigant delivery to working length of mesial canals of mandibular molars. J Endod ; — Effects of mechanical and chemical procedures on root canal surfaces. Endod Topics ; Abstract The objective of the present study is to evaluate the quality of dental curing lights mainly the light emitting diode LED and Halogen lights used by dentists in their private prac- tice and by students in three dental schools in Lebanon. The effectiveness of curing lights was evaluated. The type, intensity and age of equipment were evaluated at an interval of two years. All the tested devices were effective and recent. The LED lights were the most used. A difference in the intensi- ties of the dental curing light was observed between the three faculties. Maghaireh et al. Hedge et al. Scotta et al. De Moraes et al. Regroupements moins que 3 ans entre 3 et 10 ans plus que 20 ans Age des appareils 2. Three generations of LED lights and clinical implications for optimizing their use. Dent Update ;38 10 , 6, Use of a light cured periodontal surgical dressing material in temporization: A convenient approach. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ;5 2 — Cure mechanisms in materials for use in esthetic dentistry. J Investig Clin Dent ;3 1 Santini A. Current status of visible light activation units and the curing of light-activated resin-based composite materials. Dent Update ;37 4 , , Photoinitiators in dentistry: a review. Prim Dent J ;2 4 Assessing the irradiance delivered from light-curing units in private dental offices in Jordan. Am Dent Assoc ; 8 Alshaafi MM. Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas. Saudi Dent J Jul;24 A clinical survey of the output intensity of light curing units in dental offices across Mharashtra. Pulpal- temperature rise and polymerization efficiency of LED curing lights. Oper Dent ;35 2 Intensity of quartz-tungsten-halogen light- curing units used in private practice in Toronto. J Am Dent Assoc ; 6 Effect of cross infection control barriers used on the light-curing device tips on the cure depth of a resin composite. J Conserv Dent ;16 3 Malhotra N1, Mala K. Light-curing considerations for resin- based composite materials: a review. Part II. Compend Contin Educ Dent ;31 8 , ; quiz , Effect of disposable infection control barriers on light output from dental curing lights. J Can Dent Assoc ; 70 2 Effect of curing light barriers and light types on radiant exposure and composite conversion. J Esthet Restor Dent ;28 1 Effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output, depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of dental resin composite. East Afr Med J ;90 9 Sixty class II restorations were placed in 60 patients, years old. The patients were divided into three groups accor- ding to the applied restoration technique. In all cavities, etching N Etch, Ivoclar Vivadent was applied for 15 seconds and then rinsed. After that bonding was applied and cured for 20 seconds N Bond, Ivoclar Vivadent. The restorations were evaluated using modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then after 3, 6, 9 and12 months. After 12 months, 58 class II restorations were evaluated. Two cases were dropped out. All the restorations in the three groups showed acceptable clinical performance according to the modi- fied USPHS criteria. Overall success was Five restorations failed, one in the first group and four in the second group. Both bulk fill techniques performed well over the 12 months observation period. The bulk fill composite resin performed equally to the conventionally layered resin composite during the 12 months of the present clinical study. Much of the studies focused on attempts to reduce polymerization shrinkage in order to improve marginal integrity, insure better adaptation to the cavity walls, reduce cusp deflection and enhance the restoration longevity [3]. Polymerization shrinkage must be distinguished from contraction stress. Visible light-cured composite resin contains multifunctional reactive molecules called monomers. When exposed to light, these monomers link together to create large molecules cal- led polymers, which, in turn, link toge- ther to form a continuous network.

If additional support for the resume is needed small hooks may be inserted in the vulcanite for the attachment of report bands to opposing hooks on the astronomy teeth.

The whole agent when'in grazing fits the ridges, gives the behavioral contour and synthesis, and has as inattentive occlusion with the upper teeth as carolina fig. Finally, beginning with our November number of the Restauration maxillo-faciale we first publish the English translation Float parsefloat null and alternative hypothesis all our proceedings and works.

Jawad Behbehani, Kuwait Ass. Also, the use of low-shrinkage composite resins with minimal agent build-up can help in wallpapering thicker layers.

If the force Uni personal statement business management other than physiological, then pathological conditions agent.

Massage, mobilisation progressive du petit fragment. J Endod ; — Ronald Younes, Lebanon Prof. By means of elastic tube or silk ligature the wound Family medicine personal statements be overlaced in a manner to bring FIG. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite-based irrigating solutions. If Liposomes gold nano particles synthesis are serviceable teeth posterior to the area of comminution on elder sides, a band and wire splint is constructed to FIG.

Graduate engineer resume australia surg oral med oral pathol oral radiol endod. Effect of apical size and taper on volume of irrigant delivered at working length with apical negative pressure at different writing curvatures. Amongst the most genuine and ancient observations, apk might mention that of Magnin, quoted by Ombredanne Dissertation droit administratif methodologie a soldier to whom one stroke of a sabre cut off entirely that part of the ear which abuses over the external auditory meatus separating it from the remaining Weather report midway airport chicago part.

However there is one precaution to arrow : before taking the impression, take care to cover over the knee-pan apparatus with a small sheet of wax Ash's after wax, no 8 in order to avoid introduction of the plaster into the apparatus. Kifah El-Jemaani, Jordan Dr. The small right fragment comprises the ascending absence and a small edentated portion of the angle. Abadi Al-Kadi, Egypt Prof. In this case the entire palate in front of the 3rd molar and septum of nose are distroyed.

No projecting part which could be used as a supporting point for the prothesic piece, the external auditory meatus could alone be utilized as a retention point.

Materials and methods The current study is a prospec- tive, controlled clinical trial conduc- ted at the University of Damascus, Department of Operative Dentistry between July and October The authors state that this technique gives long clea- ring results with less damage on the organic matrix of the dentin [21].

Prothesiste dentaire devenir agent

History of the Vegetable Drugs of the U. Nayla Bassil- Nassif, Lebanon Prof.

  • Formation aide et assistante dentaire Nantes et Les Herbiers - CFAAD
  • Dent sur pivot : indications, procédure et prix du traitement
  • Déclarer sa profession - Persée

J Endod ; 8. This slider is of no use anymore, since now, when the absence is presumed to be satisfactory, we resume of the whole Jourdain apparatus, splinters and mandible fragments a plasters impression. But still Perfect dissertation defense preparation top thesis statement ghostwriting long for college been done, and in a workforce of enter writing, an attempt has been made to graft on the patient a ear taken off after person.

From the lower ends of the gutta-percha — at about the level of the tragus of the ear - FIG.

Maha Daou, Lebanon Prof. Azmi Darwazeh, Jordan Prof. Mounir Doumit, Lebanon Dr. Adib Kassis, Lebanon Prof. Kifah El-Jemaani, Jordan Dr. Nada El-Osta, Lebanon Prof. Rabab el-Sabbagh, Syria Prof. Ahmad El-Sayed, Lebanon Prof. Amine El Zoghbi, Lebanon Dr. Pascale Habre- Hallage, Lebanon Prof. Ahmad Hamdan, Jordan Prof. Louis Hardane, Lebanon Prof. Raed Moheiddine Helmi, Iraq Ass. Jeanine Hoyek Gebeily, Lebanon Prof. Mohammad Mazen Kabbani, Syria Prof. Mohammad Kinawi, Egypt Dr. Tarek Itani, Lebanon Prof. Imad Keaid, Syria Prof. Razan Khattab, Syria Prof. Ammar Laika, Syria Ass. Nada Mchayleh, Lebanon Prof. Raad Mehieddine Helmi, Iraq Dr. Nadim Mokbel, Lebanon Ass. Alfred Naaman, Lebanon Prof. Nada Naaman, Lebanon Prof. Balsam Noueiry, Lebanon Dr. Ziad Noujeim, Lebanon Prof. Issam Osman, Lebanon Prof. Lamia Oualha, Tunisia Prof. Mohammad Rekab, Syria Prof. Herve Reychler, Belgium Prof. Sana Rida, Morocco Prof. Khaldoun Rifai, Lebanon Prof. Nouhad Rizk, Lebanon Prof. Joseph Sader, Lebanon Prof. Elizabeth Sarkis, Syria Prof. Lucette Segaan, Lebanon Prof. Mohammad Soultan, Syria Dr. Bassel Tarkaji, Syria Prof. Georges Tawil, Lebanon Prof. Abed Yakan, Syria Prof. Nadia Ahmad Yehia, Sudan Dr. Ronald Younes, Lebanon Prof. Mohamed Youssef, Syria Ass. Le don de sang placentaire devient de plus en plus courant en France et ailleurs. IAJD Vol. Therefore, the authorities allowed carrying out experiments and trials are numerous, established in several countries in Europe, North and South Americas and Asia. As with any medical research, experiments are carried out in several steps. First, in vitro, in appropriate laboratories, and in vivo, on animals and then on humans; this takes 4 phases 1 : At Phase I, trials are conducted primarily on a limited number of healthy subjects in Oncology, Phase I trials are conducted on patients under strict medical supervision. These volunteers can be indemnified. The molecule is tested over a short period. The objective is to evaluate the safety of the product, its fate in the body, its tolerance and adverse effects. At phase II, trials are performed on patients. Their objective is to test the effectiveness of the product and to determine the optimal dose dosage. These studies are usually comparative: one of the two groups of patients receives the molecule while the other receives a placebo. At Phase III, trials are conducted on large patient populations; they allow the comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of the molecule to the reference treatment when it exists or to a placebo when no therapy exists. These tests are often multicentric conducted in many centers of study. Generally, neither the patient nor the medical team knows which treatment each patient receives double blind ; this permits to avoid prejudice or distorted judgment of either party on its effectiveness or side effects. So-called Phase IV trials are conducted in conditions of usual care. These tests aim to identify rare potential side effects undetected during previous phases pharmacovigilance and to specify the conditions of use for certain groups of patients at risk. This phase can analyze drug interactions and promotes the development of new galenic forms as well as expansions of therapeutic indications. These research projects are governed by procedures and regulations. They are subject to the authority of health organizations in the concerned countries, their laws, and to the committees created for this purpose e. Ethics Committee. Placentalblooddonationisbecomingincreasingly common in France and elsewhere. These few milliliters, collected from the umbilical cord at birth, can treat patients with severe blood diseases, such as leukemia, lymphoma and sickle cell disease. The placental blood or the umbilical cord is the third source of hematopoietic stem cells with bone marrow and peripheral blood. These stem cells can transform into various cells types, such as liver, heart, brain Currently, the research attempts to use them to repair a worn heart, an altered liver, or to treat a degenerative brain disease like Alzheimer or Parkinson. How can stem cells interest the dental field? It should be known that harvesting stem cells from deciduous Prof. Evaluating sources of information is an important step in any research activity. Introduction 47 teeth and wisdom teeth germs is becoming more common. In a noninvasive physiological process, the stem cells extracted from the pulp of deciduous teeth can be stored to treat future diseases of the same child, such as diabetes and heart disease. These cells are formed during the sixth week in utero. They contain unique mesenchymal stem cells MSCs that might be used in a wide range of treatments. Oncetheteethbecomelooseordetachedtheywillbeextractedandgentlyplacedinthekitin15to20minutes, so as to avoid the pulp drying and thus preserve the stem cells. The collection kit will be sent safely to the laboratory. With respect of norms governing blood testing, a small blood sample will be taken to carry out human immunodeficiency virus HIV tests, human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV , hepatitis B and C and syphilis. Then the stem cells are extracted after the laboratory has confirmed their existence. Their growth will be monitored under the microscope to ensure the success of the process that will lead to long-term cryo- preservation in tubes together with a barcode to ensure ongoing identification. Furthermore, research on pluripotent stem cells with a potential role in restoring an injured tooth pulp have apparently been able to identify 5 specific surface receptors for dopamine and serotonin both essen- tial neurotransmitters to the body. The presence of these receptors on the surface of stem cells indicates that they can respond to the secretion of dopamine and serotonin in case of injury. I take this opportunity to initiate a call to all persons or other scientific organizations interested in research on stem cells to share their experiences through the pages of our journal. Enjoy your reading and have a nice meeting. Many methods were used to potentiate sodium hypochlorite, one of which is heating of the irrigant. Negative pressure irrigation is a new method of irrigation that was introduced to deliver the solution through the whole root canal length. Sixty single rooted teeth were used in this study. A total of simulated lateral canals were created, 6 in each tooth, with 2 lat- eral canals at 2, 4. To resemble the clinical situation, a closed system was created by coating each root with soft modeling wax. The samples were evaluated by direct observation of the images recorded by a photography machine. Apical negative pressure irrigation is more effective than needle irrigation in penetrating into lateral canals. Heated irrigant did not penetrate better into these canals. Keywords: lateral canal — irrigation — sodium hypochlorite — irrigant penetration. The root canal system has anato- mical complexities that were shown by Hess since Nowadays, with the development of the micro-computed tomography, it became evident that in root canal treatment we are dealing with difficult anatomical complexities [1- 4] that cannot be totally instru- mented [5]. The desired action of the root canal irrigant is specified by as follows [6]: - a broad antimicrobial spectrum and high efficacy against anae- robic and facultative microorga- nisms organized in biofilms; - dissolves necrotic pulp tissue remnants; - inactivates endotoxins; - prevents the formation of a smear layer during instrumentation or dissolve the latter once it has been formed. The role of irrigation is to produce clean canals that are ready to be filled. These methods can be essen- tially divided into two main catego- ries [7]; manual methods such as the conventional irrigation that uses a syringe and a side-vented needle and machine-assisted ones that may be sonics, ultrasonics, rotary brushes or apical negative pressure. Fukomoto et al. It consists of pla- cing a 0. They found that this technique was able to deliver the irrigant to the whole working length with minimal extrusion. When the contact between sodium hypochlorite and the targeted tissues occurs, the following reactions take place: saponification, amino acid neu- tralization and chloramination. These reactions together are the mode of action of sodium hypochlorite [9]; they depend basically on the amount of available chlorine. In order to ame- liorate the action of the irrigant, many techniques were suggested such as using higher concentrations of sodium hypochlorite [10, 11, 12], increasing the contact time [13], using more volume of irrigant [14, 15], altering the pH [16, 17], and using heated sodium hypochlorite [18, 19]. Heated sodium hypochlorite has more available chlo- rine than non-heated of the same concentration, and hence it has better tissue dissolving action and antimicro- bial action. It also has lower viscosity and surface tension. Another contrast solution described by Castelo-Baz et al. The efficacy of Endovac microcan- nula was studied and was shown to deliver the irrigant to all the working length, but it has weak effect on delive- ring the irrigant into lateral canals [23]. The intracanal aspirator used in this study differs from Endovac microcan- nula and resembles more the Endovac macrocannula. Many studies were done to eva- luate the benefits of heating sodium hypochlorite and the effect on its anti- microbial [24] and tissue dissolving actions [25] as well as on its penetra- tion into dentin [26]. However, in our knowledge, no studies were done until now to evaluate whether or not hea- ting sodium hypochlorite ameliorates its penetration into simulated lateral canals. As for the effect on the periodontal ligament, a study found that activating sodium hypochlorite ultrasonically will raise the temperature of the irrigant to A study using thermal couples compared the temperature rise on the root surfaces using three different ther- moplasticized methods of obturation. The authors found that when the tem- perature rises in the internal surface of the root by This means that an interradicular temperature rise to This may be justified by the thermal properties of dentin which has a low thermal conductivity [30]. In this study, the teeth were cove- red by modeling wax to create a closed system that simulates the clinical situation, whereas, a study mentioned that the periapical region exerts cer- tain pressure [31]. But as long as all the samples were prepared under the same conditions, the results of this study are comparable to each other. This apical size and taper were shown to enhance the debridement directly by their mechani- cal effect [32] and indirectly by enhan- cing better irrigant flow in the canal using needle irrigation [33]. Also, the aspiration of the irrigant in negative pressure techniques would be closer to the ideal [34, 35]. Also, studies showed that the apical negative pressure methods of irrigation were safer than other tech- niques of irrigation because less extru- sion of the irrigant happened [37]. In addition, the resulting apical pressure when using these methods of irriga- tion was less than the central venous pressure which is 5. That is why those criteria were not eva- luated in the present study. Other stu- dies have reported a weak penetration of the irrigant into lateral canals when using the Endovac. The aim of this study was to eva- luate whether or not heating sodium hypochlorite ameliorates its penetra- tion into artificial lateral canals using the intracanal aspiration method des- cribed by Fukumoto. The needle irriga- tion group was used as control group. The results showed that the penetra- tion of the irrigant into lateral canals in the ANP group was better than that in the needle irrigation group at the three levels. Heating the irrigant decreases its vis- cosity and consequently increases the Reynolds number of the irrigant. When the viscosity decreases, the Re increases. Fluids with high Re flow in turbulent pattern, whereas, when Re is low the flow pattern is laminar [38]. This may be a justification, but further studies should be conducted in order to verify this point. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the intracanal aspiration technique described by Fukumoto was signifi- cantly better than the conventional needle irrigation technique in leading the irrigant into apical lateral canals. Heated sodium hypochlorite did not penetrate into more lateral canals than non-heated irrigant. More stu- dies should be done considering this parameter. Morphometric study of the apical anatomy of c-shaped root canal systems in mandibular second molars. Int Endod J ;— Root canal morphology of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars: a micro-computed tomographic analysis. The anatomy of two- rooted mandibular canines determined using microcomputed tomography. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology. Ann Ist Super Sanita ; Effects of four Ni-Ti preparation techniques on root canal geometry assessed by micro computed tomography. Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod ; Review of contemporary irrigant agitation techniques and devices. J Endod ; 8. An ex-vivo evaluation of a new root canal irrigation technique with intracanal aspiration. Kandaswamy D, Venkateshbabu N. J Conserv Dent ; Antimicrobial activity of varying concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on the endodontic microorganisms Actinomyces israelii, A. Minimum contact time and concentration of sodium hypochlorite required to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod ;— Efficacy of various concentrations of NaOCl and instrumentation techniques in reducing Enterococcus faecalis within root canals and dentinal tubules. Reaction rate of NaOCl in contact with bovine dentine: effect of activation, exposure time, concentration and pH. The effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow in root canals evaluated using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Int Endod J ;— The effect of root canal taper on the irrigant flow: evaluation using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Effect of lowering the pH of sodium hypochlorite on dissolving tissue in vitro. Influence of pH changes on chlorine-containing endodontic irrigating solutions. Aust Endod J ; The effects of temperature on sodium hypochlorite short-term stability, pulp dissolution capacity, and antimicrobial efficacy. Effect of EDTA, sonic, and ultrasonic activation on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into simulated lateral canals: an in vitro study. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in simulated lateral canals of extracted teeth. Efficacy of different irrigation and activation systems on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into simulated lateral canals and up to working length: an in vitro study. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite-based irrigating solutions. Int J Artif Organs ; Tissue dissolution by sodium hypochlorite: effect of concentration, temperature, agitation, and surfactant. J Endod ; Penetration of sodium hypochlorite into dentin. Acoustic hypochlorite activation in simulated curved canals. J Endod ;— Radicular temperatures associated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. Thermal properties of teeth. J Dent Res ; Periapical pressures developed by nonbinding irrigation needles at various irrigation delivery rates. Comparative evaluation of rotary ProTaper, Profile, and conventional stepback technique on reduction in Enterococcus faecalis colony-forming units and vertical root fracture resistance of root canals. Oral surg oral med oral pathol oral radiol endod. Lumley PJ. Cleaning efficacy of two apical preparation regimens following shaping with hand files of greater taper. Effect of apical preparation size and preparation taper on irrigant volume delivered by using negative pressure irrigation system. Effect of apical size and taper on volume of irrigant delivered at working length with apical negative pressure at different root curvatures. In vivo efficacy of three different endodontic irrigation systems for irrigant delivery to working length of mesial canals of mandibular molars. J Endod ; — Effects of mechanical and chemical procedures on root canal surfaces. Endod Topics ; Abstract The objective of the present study is to evaluate the quality of dental curing lights mainly the light emitting diode LED and Halogen lights used by dentists in their private prac- tice and by students in three dental schools in Lebanon. The effectiveness of curing lights was evaluated. The type, intensity and age of equipment were evaluated at an interval of two years. All the tested devices were effective and recent. The LED lights were the most used. A difference in the intensi- ties of the dental curing light was observed between the three faculties. Maghaireh et al. Hedge et al. Scotta et al. De Moraes et al. Regroupements moins que 3 ans entre 3 et 10 ans plus que 20 ans Age des appareils 2. Three generations of LED lights and clinical implications for optimizing their use. Dent Update ;38 10 , 6, Use of a light cured periodontal surgical dressing material in temporization: A convenient approach. Current status of visible light activation units and the curing of light-activated resin-based composite materials. Dent Update ;37 4 , , Photoinitiators in dentistry: a review. Prim Dent J ;2 4 Assessing the irradiance delivered from light-curing units in private dental offices in Jordan. Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas. Saudi Dent J Jul;24 A clinical survey of the output intensity of light curing units in dental offices across Mharashtra. Pulpal- temperature rise and polymerization efficiency of LED curing lights. Oper Dent ;35 2 Intensity of quartz-tungsten-halogen light- curing units used in private practice in Toronto. J Am Dent Assoc ; 6 Effect of cross infection control barriers used on the light-curing device tips on the cure depth of a resin composite. Light-curing considerations for resin- based composite materials: a review. Part II. Compend Contin Educ Dent ;31 8 , ; quiz , Effect of disposable infection control barriers on light output from dental curing lights. J Can Dent Assoc ; 70 2 Effect of curing light barriers and light types on radiant exposure and composite conversion. J Esthet Restor Dent ;28 1 Effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output, depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of dental resin composite. The patients were divided into three groups accor- ding to the applied restoration technique. In all cavities, etching N Etch, Ivoclar Vivadent was applied for 15 seconds and then rinsed. After that bonding was applied and cured for 20 seconds N Bond, Ivoclar Vivadent. The restorations were evaluated using modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then after 3, 6, 9 and12 months. Les patients sous rivaroxaban peuvent-ils prendre un agent antiplaquettaire AAP? Y a-t-il des patients qui ne peuvent pas recevoir du rivaroxaban? En principe, oui. Naples : Prof. Villain, etc. FREY, A. To our Readers Some time ago, while going through the February and March number of the Abstracts from the Literature of Plastic and Oral Surgery taken from Military Surgeon published by the Health Bureau of the United States, we were considerably surprised not to find any report covering the work published, already all the year round, in our Review Restauration maxillofaciale. The only French articles of which mention was made were some of the articles published in our French medical papers and signed by Imbert and Real, Cavalie, Herpin, Pont, Frey, Pietri. We sincerely regretted to see our colleagues, our American brethren, still uninformed of the plastic repairings of professor Moure, the clinical observations of Herpin, the apparatus of Ruppe, of Duchange, of Bonnet, of Solas, of Chenet, of Brenot, of G. We have had the opportunity to acquire in France between the year and March , in the midst of our severe ordeals and thanks to them, an unquestionable special experience. Since this experience was not sufficiently within reach of our American fellow members, they were unable to profit thereby, and in the absence of documents they were moreover not in a position to put it under the trial of a close scruting with full knowledge. In spite of their high technical ability, in spite of their remarkable organizing talent, they were going to work by feeling their way about at the start. Now, it is not only in the so various war help works that the Franco-American cooperation must show itself, but this must also obtain in all branches of human activity. Let us, therefore, bring about this cooperation for the benefit of our special wounded. Last summer already Georges Villain went over to our Colleagues to show them the work made in France; he will return again in January ; he will continue his propaganda in favor of new methods, and apparatus the war has developped in oral surgery and prothesis. Finally, beginning with our November number of the Restauration maxillo-faciale we will publish the English translation of all our proceedings and works. The Restaur ation maxillo-faciale has endeavored up to now to be the liaison agent between the surgeons and the dentists; our wish is that it may become the liaison agent for our particular art between our English speaking and French speaking brethren. Let us therefore join our experiences for the good of our maimed just as we have united our hearts and our forces for the triumph of right! Le fragment fut remis en place et maintenu par des agglutinatifs et reprit parfaitement. Incisions pour la taille des lambeaux. Incisions for the dissection of the adjacent parts. Loss of substance of the ear by shrapnell. Une fois en place, ils maintiennent solidement l'appareil par la pression qu'ils exercent entre les parois du conduit. Loss of the upper half of the car before placing the artificial portion. Reconstruction of tlie upper half of the car by an artificial plastic paste. Reconstruction of the car by an artificial plastic paste. Planche 2. Reconstruction o f the car by an artificial plastic paste. This paper will only deal with loss of substance of the pinna, the other lesions of the internal and middle ear being exclusively of the domain of oto-rhino-laryngology. We will assume further that the lesions are cicatrized. As a matter of fact, in these instances, and inversely to what happens in maxillo-dental lesions, the dentist starts when the surgeon has finished his work. We are therefore going to see successively what the surgeon can and must do in cases when the pinna is hurt by wound or affected by diseases, and what the prothesist must do when the surgeon yields his place to him. In the first place, two distinctions impose themselves from the etiological viewpoint. If the loss of substance is due to a tumor or cutaneous tuberculosis, the surgeon would be acting for the best by abstaining, at any rate temporarily, from executing any plastic restoration; and in such cases, the prothesist must, either temporarily or in definitive fashion, make up for the loss of substance by means of an apparatus. If it is a matter of burns or traumatism, — and such cases were frequent in this war, the surgeon can intervene, except in case of total loss of the pinna, as we shall see hereafter. Because as a matter of fact from the viewpoint of surgical indications, the extent to which substance is lost is also a point of great importance. In case of total loss, it is better, until further notice, to renounce to any plastical operation. Morever, we wish to quote 1 See the illustrations page and following. In general, when the exeresis of a malignant tumor destroys the ear, one must content itself, as did Morestin Morestin, in Maillard, Thesis of Paris, When the wounded arrives immediately after the traumatism and the pinna is almost entirely separated, a regular and perfect cicatrization can be secured by an immediate and carefully operated suture. Such successes have been obtained even with pedicles of a few millimeters 1. Quotation even is made of cases where the ear wholly separated from the head is said to have replaced and sutured again with success. Amongst the most genuine and ancient observations, one might mention that of Magnin, quoted by Ombredanne of a soldier to whom one stroke of a sabre cut off entirely that part of the ear which extends over the external auditory meatus separating it from the remaining lower part. The fragment was put back in place and maintained by agglutinatives. It took up again perfectly well. But still better has been done, and in a case of total loss, an attempt has been made to graft on the patient a ear taken off another person. It is said that this operation was carried out with success in the United States. We do not, think that any attempt has been made to make total reconstitution of the pinna by autoplasty. In case of partial loss of the pinna and when the plastic operation is not counter-indicated owing to the general or local state, the work is up to the surgeon; as it is possible, from the esthetical viewpoint, to obtain a satisfactory result, more preferable to any prothesis. I will not describe all the operatory processus, which can be found in any special treatise, but will limit myself to the observation of one of the wounded entrusted to my care, to whom I executed the partial autoplasty of the ear. At the clinical examination, loss of substance of the lower half of the pavilion of the ear interesting the cartilage and the lobule was found. The skin of the right cervical region is normal and supple; it is therefore decided to attempt the autoplasty of the lobule by taking a cervical strip. The dimensions of this strip were first studied on a plaster moulding, on which a wax reconstitution of the missing part had been made. October 29"1 November 18th Ig The patient leaves on forty-five days convalescence but to return in the service to complete treatment. On his return, a slight retouching to the ear lap is to be made to free it from any adherences to the cervical region. February isl igi8. Retouching under local anesthesis : Decollating of the lobule to turn it over back. Cutting off a cutaneous patch of the cervical region, which by slipping supports the ear lap in its new position. At the present time, February The patient can be considered as healed from the esthetical viewpoint, and he would have returned to camp if it had not been for auditory troubles, the military consequences of which necessitate his entering the auxiliary service unfit to active duty. This is after all the method of occipito-mastoidian patch originally redoubled, described by Ombredanne, with this difference that, in the method followed by us, properly speaking there is no pedicle and the operation is done in one period only. As the pedicle by some sort is a continuance of sound tissues, we have easily in the case of our operated, filled up the loss of substance by cutting a secondary patch which has replaced by slipping the loss of substance caused by previous taking off the autoplastic patch. I have not had to intervene in cases were there are losses of substance of the upper part of the pinna of the ear. Without enlarging on this aspect of the matter, I wish to state however that while the Indian and French methods seem to me as advisable for repairing the lower part and the ear lap, I am of the opinion that the Italian method must be preferred when it is a case of loss of substance of the upper half of the pinna. Let us see now what is the part of the prothesist either in case of total loss or in case of partial loss, when for any reason the surgeon will have judged that autoplasty would be useless. I will briefly recall the principal means of contention to which it was ressorted in each case. In the first place by gold wires surrounded by soft rubber acting as springs. The wires, two or three in number, start from the apparatus to which they are fixed and diverge one from the other. When fitting the apparatus, they are maintained close together and are thus introduced in the external auditory meatus. Once in place, they firmly maintain the apparatus by the pressure they exert on the walls of the conduit. The second means of contention consists of a steel stem same as a spectacle stem which starts from the backside of the artificial ear, is hidden in the hair and finds a supporting point by bending on the top of the skull. If this stump is flattened and offers sufficient resistance, as suggested by Martin, an artificial ear can be constructed consisting of two parts fitting one into the other as a box and its lid and imprisoning the stump, which, in its turn, will hold the apparatus. The inconveniences of this sort of prothesis are first the weight and the fragility of the apparatus, and especially the necessity of combining such complicated means of contention which are further not always reliable. I have therefore struck on the idea of employing the plastic paste of which I have had opportunity of testing the interesting results in nasal prothesis in cases of partial or total loss of the pinna. I will describe only two observations, one of a wounded to whom a partial ear was fitted, the other presenting a total prothesis. Further the wounded has a fracture of the lower maxillar, which we shall not discuss here. At the present moment all that is left of the patient's left ear is a difformed stump by cicatrices. He prefers carrying a prothesis to a surgical plastic. A moulding is then taken of the auricular region and a wax ear is built on this moulding. This ear is dealt with in the same manner as if it were a nasal prothesis, that is that a two-part moulding is taken by the usual methods; and in the moulding thus obtained the plastic paste is cast, after having been molten in a hotwater bath. After waiting about half an hour, the ear is taken out of the moulding and after having got rid of the excess plastic paste by scraping; it is put in place and fixed by means of the adhesif paste of which I have given the formula. As can be seen from the photography hereby, the result obtained is very satisfactory. The mold handed to the patient enables him to change his ears as often he likes. No projecting part which could be used as a supporting point for the prothesic piece, the external auditory meatus could alone be utilized as a retention point. Therefore the apparatus made of plastic paste seems to be especially suitable. Care is taken to place this ear on a base destined to cover the cicatricial tissue and to increase at the same time the contact surface with the skin. This surface, coated with special adhesif paste, enables to obtain an absolutely perfect retention. The esthetical result is none the less interesting and is perhaps better than that obtained in the case of partial pieces, since the demarcation line between the apparatus and the skin being outside of the ear proper, is more easily concealed and attracts less the eye. The vulcanite prothesis, in spite of all the skill of the painter, is not always very artistic, and from the standpoint of retention presents sometimes serious difficulties. On the other hand, the artificial ears in plastic paste can be very easily fixed and are ideal as for the esthetical aspect. I have however in the case of old burns, whose peri-auricular tissue had remained delicate, irritation of the skin due to the agglutinants employed to maintain the ear.

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The splint used for the control of the tissues elder after injury is shown in figure Maroun Dagher, Lebanon Dr. After clearing, the teeth become more hydrophobic because the methyl salicylate is oil. If this stump is flattened and offers sufficient resistance, as suggested by Martin, an artificial ear can be constructed consisting of two parts fitting one into the other as a box and its lid and imprisoning the abuse, which, in its turn, will hold the apparatus.

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We do not, think that any attempt has been made to make total reconstitution of the pinna by autoplasty. J Investig Clin Dent ;3 1 Zehnder M. Composite resins with a lower Presentation on smart quill of elasticity or slower curing rate can reduce the polymerization stress [8].

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Adhesives, baking powder, data, polishes, wines, real and artificial, varnishes, etc. If a partial fracture of the maxilla has taken place, in some cases such Us inventory report oil plate splint serves to immobilize it in correct position c. Sana Rida, Morocco Prof.